Skip to main content Skip to secondary navigation


Main content start

 Highlighted Papers

Qiji Ze*, Shuai Wu*, Jize Dai, Sophie Leanza, Gentaro Ikeda, Phillip C. Yang, Gianluca Iaccarino, Ruike Renee Zhao. "Spinning-enabled Wireless Amphibious Origami Millirobot." Nature Communications (2022): 13, 3118.

PDF Videos & SI CNN Tech For GoodNature | Research HighlightNature | Asia Stanford News NSF Science Now  National Geographic

(*These authors contributed equally to this work)


Sophie Leanza, Juliana Lu-Yang, Bartosz Kaczmarski, Shuai Wu, Ellen Kuhl, Ruike Renee Zhao. "Elephant Trunk Inspired Multimodal Deformations and Movements of Soft Robotics Arms" Advanced Functional Materials (2024), 2400396. 

PDF Videos & SI

Jay Sim, Ruike Renee Zhao. "Magneto-Mechanical Metamaterials: A Perspective" Journal of Applied Mechanics 91, no. 3 (2024): 031004.


Lu Lu, Jay Sim, Ruike Renee Zhao. "Mechanics of hard-magnetic soft materials: A review" Mechanics of Materials 189, (2024): 104874.


Xiaohao Sun, Kun Zhou, Frédéric Demoly, Ruike Renee Zhao, H. Jerry Qi. "Perspective: Machine Learning in Design for 3D/4D Printing" Journal of Applied Mechanics 91, no. 3 (2024): 030801.




Liwei Wang, Yilong Chang, Shuai Wu, Ruike Renee Zhao, Wei Chen. "Physics-aware differentiable design of magnetically actuated kirigami for shape morphing" Nature Communications 14, no. 1 (2023): 8516.

PDF Videos & SI

Victor Maurin*, Yilong Chang*, Qiji Ze, Sophie Leanza, Jing Wang, Ruike Renee Zhao. "Liquid Crystal Elastomer-Liquid Metal Composite: Ultrafast, Untethered, and Programmable Actuation by Induction Heating" Advanced Materials (2023): 2302765.

PDF Videos & SI

Lu Lu, Jize Dai, Sophie Leanza, John W. Hutchinson, Ruike Renee Zhao. "Multiple equilibrium states of a curved-sided hexagram: Part II-Transitions between states." Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 180 (2023): 105407.

PDF Videos & SI

Lu Lu, Jize Dai, Sophie Leanza, Ruike Renee Zhao, John W. Hutchinson. "Multiple equilibrium states of a curved-sided hexagram: Part I-Stability of states." Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 180 (2023): 105406. 

PDF Videos & SI

Jay Sim, Shuai Wu, Jize Dai, and Ruike Renee Zhao. "Magneto-Mechanical Bilayer Metamaterial with Global Area-Preserving Density Tunability for Acoustic Wave Regulation.Advanced Materials 35, no. 35 (2023): 2303541.

PDF Videos & SI Cover

Sophie Leanza, Shuai Wu, Xiaohao Sun, H. Jerry Qi, and Ruike Renee Zhao. "Active Materials for Functional Origami.Advanced Materials (2023): 2302066.


Sophie Leanza, Ruike Renee Zhao, and John W. Hutchinson. "On the elastic stability of folded rings in circular and straight states.European Journal of Mechanics-A/Solids (2023): 105041.


Christopher B. Cooper, Samuel E. Root, Lukas Michalek, Shuai Wu, Jian-Cheng Lai, Muhammad Khatib, Solomon T. Oyakhire, Renee Zhao, Jian Qin, and Zhenan Bao. "Autonomous alignment and healing in multilayer soft electronics using immiscible dynamic polymers.Science 380, no. 6648 (2023): 935-941.


Jize Dai, Lu Lu, Sophie Leanza, John W. Hutchinson, and Ruike Renee Zhao. "Curved Ring Origami: Bistable Elastic Folding for Magic Pattern Reconfigurations.Journal of Applied Mechanics 90, no. 12 (2023): 121013. 

PDF Videos

Lu Lu, Sophie Leanza, and Ruike Renee Zhao. "Origami with Rotational Symmetry: A Review on Their Mechanics and Design.Applied Mechanics Reviews 75, no. 5 (2023): 050801.


Lu Lu*, Sophie Leanza*, Jize Dai*, Xiaohao Sun, and Ruike Renee Zhao. "Easy snap-folding of hexagonal ring origami by geometric modifications.Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 171 (2023): 105142.

PDF   Videos   


Xirui Peng*, Shuai Wu*, Xiaohao Sun, Liang Yue, S. Macrae Montgomery, Frédéric Demoly, Kun Zhou, Ruike Renee Zhao, and H. Jerry Qi. "4D Printing of Freestanding Liquid Crystal Elastomers via Hybrid Additive Manufacturing." Advanced Materials 34, no. 39 (2022): 2204890.

                                        PDF Videos & SI

Chunping Ma*, Yilong Chang*, Shuai Wu, and Ruike Renee Zhao. "Deep Learning-Accelerated Designs of Tunable Magneto-Mechanical Metamaterials." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces no. 29 (2022): 33892-33902.

PDF        SI       

Magnetic array with copper pattern

Shuai Wu*, Jack Eichenberger*, Jize Dai*, Yilong Chang, Nima Ghalichechian, Ruike Renee Zhao. "Magnetically Actuated Reconfigurable Metamaterials as Conformal Electromagnetic Filters.Advanced Intelligent Systems 4, no. 9 (2022): 2200106.

PDF Videos & SI

Sophie Leanza*, Shuai Wu*, Jize Dai*, and Ruike Renee Zhao. "Hexagonal Ring Origami Assemblies: Foldable Functional Structures with Extreme Packing.Journal of Applied Mechanics  89, no. 8 (2022): 081003.

PDF Videos & SI

Xiaohao Sun, Shuai Wu, Jize Dai, Sophie Leanza, Liang Yue, Luxia Yu, Yi Jin, H. Jerry Qi, and Ruike Renee Zhao. "Phase diagram and mechanics of snap-folding of ring origami by twisting.International Journal of Solids and Structures  248 (2022): 111685.


Folding of a hexagonal ring

Shuai Wu*, Jize Dai*, Sophie Leanza*, and Ruike Renee Zhao. "Hexagonal ring origami—Snap-folding with large packing ratio.Extreme Mechanics Letters  53 (2022): 101713.

PDF Videos & SI

Qiji Ze*, Shuai Wu*, Jun Nishikawa, Jize Dai, Yue Sun, Sophie Leanza, Cole Zemelka, Larissa S. Novelino, Glaucio H. Paulino, Ruike Renee Zhao. "Soft Robotic Origami Crawler." Science Advances, 8, no. 13 (2022): eabm7834.

PDF Videos & SI Cover 


Shuai Wu*, Qiji Ze*, Jize Dai, Nupur Udipi, Glaucio H. Paulino, and Ruike Zhao. "Stretchable origami robotic arm with omnidirectional bending and twisting.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 118, no. 36 (2021).

PDF Videos & SINature | Research Highlight PNAS | In This Issue

Yanlun Zhu, Shuai Deng, Xiaoyu Zhao, Guanggai Xia, Ruike Zhao, and Hon Fai Chan. "Deciphering and engineering tissue folding: a mechanical perspective.Acta Biomaterialia 134 (2021): 32-42.


Xiao Kuang*, Shuai Wu*, Qiji Ze*, Liang Yue, Yi Jin, S. Macrae Montgomery, Fengyuan Yang, H. Jerry Qi, and Ruike Zhao. "Magnetic Dynamic Polymers for Modular Assembling and Reconfigurable Morphing Architectures.Advanced Materials 33, no. 30 (2021): 2102113.

PDF Videos & SI

Seongjun Park, Hyunwoo Yuk, Ruike Zhao, Yeong Shin Yim, Eyob W. Woldeghebriel, Jeewoo Kang, Andres Canales et al. "Adaptive and multifunctional hydrogel hybrid probes for long-term sensing and modulation of neural activity.Nature Communications 12, no. 1 (2021): 1-12.


Shuai Wu*, Liang Yue*, Yi Jin*, Xiaohao Sun, Cole Zemelka, H. Jerry Qi, and Ruike Zhao. "Ring Origami: Snap‐Folding of Rings with Different Geometries.Advanced Intelligent Systems 3, no. 9 (2021): 2100107.

PDF Videos & SI Advanced Science News

S. Macrae Montgomery*, Shuai Wu*, Xiao Kuang, Connor D. Armstrong, Cole Zemelka, Qiji Ze, Rundong Zhang, Ruike Zhao, and H. Jerry Qi. "Magneto‐mechanical metamaterials with widely tunable mechanical properties and acoustic bandgaps.Advanced Functional Materials 31, no. 3 (2021): 2005319. 

                                       PDF Videos & SI


Shuai Wu, Wenqi Hu, Qiji Ze, Metin Sitti, and Ruike Zhao. "Multifunctional magnetic soft composites: a review.Multifunctional Materials 3, no. 4 (2020): 042003.


Larissa S. Novelino*, Qiji Ze*, Shuai Wu*, Glaucio H. Paulino, and Ruike Zhao. "Untethered control of functional origami microrobots with distributed actuation.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117, no. 39 (2020): 24096-24101.

PDF Videos & SIOSU NewsMAE NewsIMR News

Chunping Ma*, Shuai Wu*, Qiji Ze, Xiao Kuang, Rundong Zhang, H. Jerry Qi, and Ruike Zhao. "Magnetic multimaterial printing for multimodal shape transformation with tunable properties and shiftable mechanical behaviors.ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 13, no. 11 (2020): 12639-12648.

                                       PDF Videos & SI

Qiang Zhang, Xirui Peng, Shayuan Weng, Rundong Zhang, Daining Fang, Ruike Zhao, and H. Jerry Qi. "Self-adaptive flexible valve as passive flow regulator.Extreme Mechanics Letters 39 (2020): 100824.

PDF        SI       

Rundong  Zhang, Shuai Wu, Qiji Ze, and Ruike Zhao. "Micromechanics study on actuation efficiency of hard-magnetic soft active materials.Journal of Applied Mechanics 87, no. 9 (2020): 091008.

PDF        SI       

Shuai Wu, Craig M. Hamel, Qiji Ze, Fengyuan Yang, H. Jerry Qi, and Ruike Zhao. "Evolutionary Algorithm‐Guided Voxel‐Encoding Printing of Functional Hard‐Magnetic Soft Active Materials.Advanced Intelligent Systems 2, no. 8 (2020): 2000060.

PDF Videos & SI Advanced Science News

A. Asghari Adib , A. Sheikhi, M. Shahhosseini, A. Simeunović, S. Wu, C. E. Castro, R. Zhao, A. Khademhosseini, and D. J. Hoelzle. "Direct-write 3D printing and characterization of a GelMA-based biomaterial for intracorporeal tissue engineering.Biofabrication 12, no. 4 (2020): 045006.

Qiji Ze*, Xiao Kuang*, Shuai Wu*, Janet Wong, S. Macrae Montgomery, Rundong Zhang, Joshua M. Kovitz, Fengyuan Yang, H. Jerry Qi, and Ruike Zhao. "Magnetic shape memory polymers with integrated multifunctional shape manipulation." Advanced Materials 32, no. 4 (2020): 1906657.

PDF Videos & SINSF NewsOSU NewsGeorgia Tech News Cover


Shuai Wu*, Qiji Ze*, Rundong Zhang, Nan Hu, Yang Cheng, Fengyuan Yang, and Ruike Zhao. "Symmetry-breaking actuation mechanism for soft robotics and active metamaterials.ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 11, no. 44 (2019): 41649-41658.

PDF   Videos, SI & Code

Ruike Zhao*, Yoonho Kim*, Shawn A. Chester, Pradeep Sharma, and Xuanhe Zhao. "Mechanics of hard-magnetic soft materials.Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 124 (2019): 244-263.



Guoying Gu, Jiang Zou, Ruike Zhao, Xuanhe Zhao, and Xiangyang Zhu. "Soft wall-climbing robots.Science Robotics 3, no. 25 (2018): eaat2874.


Jaewoo Shim, Sang-Hoon Bae, Wei Kong, Doyoon Lee, Kuan Qiao, Daniel Nezich, Yong Ju Park, Ruike Zhao et al. "Controlled crack propagation for atomic precision handling of wafer-scale two-dimensional materials.Science 362, no. 6415 (2018): 665-670.


Hon Fai Chan*, Ruike Zhao*, German A. Parada, Hu Meng, Kam W. Leong, Linda G. Griffith, and Xuanhe Zhao. "Folding artificial mucosa with cell-laden hydrogels guided by mechanics models.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 115, no. 29 (2018): 7503-7508.


Yoonho Kim*, Hyunwoo Yuk*, Ruike Zhao*, Shawn A. Chester, and Xuanhe Zhao. "Printing ferromagnetic domains for untethered fast-transforming soft materials.Nature 558, no. 7709 (2018): 274-279. 

PDF Nature Cover

Ruike Zhao, Shaoting Lin, Hyunwoo Yuk, and Xuanhe Zhao. "Kirigami enhances film adhesion.Soft Matter 14, no. 13 (2018): 2515-2525.


2017 and previous

Ruike Zhao, and Xuanhe Zhao. "Multimodal surface instabilities in curved film–substrate structures.Journal of Applied Mechanics 84, no. 8 (2017): 081001.


Ruike Zhao, Mazen Diab, and Kyung-Suk Kim. "The primary bilayer ruga-phase diagram II: Irreversibility in ruga evolution.Journal of Applied Mechanics 83, no. 9 (2016): 091004.


Ruike Zhao, Teng Zhang, Mazen Diab, Huajian Gao, and Kyung-Suk Kim. "The primary bilayer ruga-phase diagram I: Localizations in ruga evolution.Extreme Mechanics Letters 4 (2015): 76-82.


Mazen Diab, Teng Zhang, Ruike Zhao, Huajian Gao, and Kyung-Suk Kim. "Ruga mechanics of creasing: from instantaneous to setback creases.Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 469, no. 2157 (2013): 20120753.